We study the the birth of non farming enterprise in the developing world. We test if such activities are led by skills or are an ex-post income smoothing device for uninsured households. We find that farmers become entrepreneurs in response to negative productivity shocks to farming, while credit constraints do not seem to play a substantial role. Importantly, and consistently with irreversible investment or learning-by-doing, these reluctant entrepreneurs do not revert to full farming following new positive productivity shocks. These entrepreneurs are typically under performing entrepreneurs while they were above average farmers. This selection might contribute to the understanding of the dual phenomenon of low-productivity units coexisting in developing countries.
A template that is similar to the HAISA conference style v2018
HAISE recommends using the Microsoft Word (doc) template though. The page limit is 10, including references. I am really thankful Peter Williams (firstname.lastname@example.org) for the harvard bibliography style Version 2.0.5. I have used his jasa_harvard.sty file.